- LuxDev's Regional office
- Vientiane Regional Office
- Local Development
- Partner execution agency
- Thua Thien Hue Provincial People’s Committee
- PIC 3
- 2011 - 2015
- Implementation period
- 1 July 2013 - 30 June 2018
- Total duration
- 60 months
- Total budget
- 10,000,000 EUR
- Contribution breakdown
- Luxembourg Government
- Thua Thien Hue (TTH) province
The Climate-Adapted Local Development & Innovation Project (CALDIP, VIE/033) is a four-year project jointly funded by the Governments of Vietnam and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. It built upon the successes of project VIE/023 Quang Dien Local Development (2007-2012) which was the first project in Thua Thien Hué Province and implemented according to the Hanoi Declaration and Government Decree 131.
CALDIP is operational in 29 poor and vulnerable (coastal, lagoon, low land) communes in three districts of TT Hue province. The 400,000 beneficiaries of the project live on 124,000 ha of land and 22,000 ha of lagoon area. The project specifically targets the 47% 'poor' and 'near poor' (vulnerable) - 70% of whom are women, and 30% former boat people, who for safety reasons were resettled on land.
The Climate-Adapted Local Development & Innovation Project aims to strengthen, adapt and protect people’s livelihoods and assets from the various manifestations of Climate Change – such as more frequent and stronger typhoons, severe floods in the rainy season, drought in the dry season, damage to natural resources and the ecosystem as well as a dramatic beach and dune erosion and loss of land to the ocean. These very visible manifestations of Climate Change are already having a major impact on people’s economic activities and lives, and are expected to exponentially increase over time.
In response to the increasing challenges, and in partnership with local governments and civil society, the project identified 10 major focus areas and 34 different types of intervention, aimed at contributing to three expected results:
(Result 1) Improved knowledge, community and government management, systems and assets for adaptive socio-economic development and poverty reduction, through
- Greater community mobilisation and ownership in support of adaptive local development;
- Improved targeted training programmes;
- Improved quality and delivery of public services;
- Climate-adaptive and resilient physical infrastructure.
(Result 2) Increased protection, availability, resilience and sustainable use of natural resources; through
- Improved living conditions of poor and vulnerable people in resettled areas;
- Demonstrated innovations for protection and recovery from floods and storms;
- Reduced pollution through community cooperation, management and action;
- Methods for participatory use and conservation of natural resources.
(Result 3) More diverse, efficient, climate-adapted, market-competitive productive activities
- Improved production and yields in adaptive agriculture;
- Higher employability in the salaried labour market, or self-employment.
The project takes a special focus on local participation, which enables households to be more creative and self-reliant according to their aspirations, abilities and resources in the process of planning and implementing ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ activities.
Vietnam - Effective use of participatory methods for climate-adapted local planning in Thua Thien Hue
A major objective of the Climate-Adapted Local Development and Innovation Project, VIE/033 was to promote democracy and community ownership by enabling communities in Vietnam’s Thua Thien Hue province to become not only the active partners in local development, but also its engines. During inception and implementation phases this bold objective justified the project’s strong focus on community mobilisation, participation and ownership, considered critical for delivery, impact and long-term sustainability. Thus, the Project implemented a range of activities aimed at increasing local capacities and capabilities of communities and government staff in support of improved local governance.
Two interventions in particular were considered very important for the development and application of participatory methods for climate-adapted local planning: Commune Vulnerability and Capacity Assessments (CVCA) and the Local Participatory Planning Process (LPPP).
Commune Vulnerability and Capacity Assessments (CVCA) reports were developed for all 29 project target communes with the active participation of communities, mass organisations and local government staff, in line with the national and provincial policies and plans on Climate Change Adaptation (CCA), Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Inter-Coastal Zone Management. Considering the context of Thua Thien Hue province, where the impact of climate change on the coastal and lagoon environment and people’s livelihoods is quite dramatic, such CVCA reports are an essential tool for planners to understand and assess current situations, and design effective interventions for capacity building and infrastructure development in support of innovation, risk mitigation and adaptation of livelihoods.
CVCA reports were subsequently used as important building blocks during four-day planning sessions with communities in all target villages as part of the Local Participatory Planning Process (LPPP). 224 Village Development Plans were prepared for each target village by a total of 8,355 household representatives. These were then inserted into Commune Development Plans and further integrated into the government’s Five-Year Socio-Economic Development Plans 2016-2020.
A participatory planning manual developed under a previous Luxembourg-funded project was substantially revised and updated, with integration of new components such as Change Adaptation (CCA), Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), environmental protection, gender equality and women’s economic empowerment, as well as market development for agricultural production and services. Government staff at all levels was trained and developed the capacity to use these tools and implement the process.
Commune Vulnerability and Capacity Assessments (CVCA) reports and the Local Participatory Planning Process (LPPP) output were not only used by project stakeholders for annual project planning, but they also became key building blocks for the development of plans under a number of national target programmes, such as a Poverty Reduction Programme for 257 Coastal Communes and the New Rural Development Programme master plans. They are major priorities in the government’s aim for further decentralisation down to the commune level, and with increased community participation.
The process and outputs of the LPPP proved to be major improvements comparing to earlier planning approaches. This was made possible thanks to the training of 32 master trainers and over 700 commune and village staff, as well as a province-wide rollout of the LPPP on-going as from 2016, funded and implemented with government resources.
CVCA and LPPP have demonstrated to be very effective methods for participatory planning in climate-vulnerable localities and communities. They have contributed to a better understanding of key issues, and have led to increased empowerment and ownership of the planning cycle and use of community resources, resulting in ameliorated effectiveness and sustainability of interventions. They have also contributed to a enrich the partnership between villagers and relevant authorities, and have become an essential work element for improved local governance.
As stated in the independent Mid-Term Review from early 2016, VIE/033 Project drives to “sustained institutional changes” and CVCA and LPPP outputs are “enhanced (and notably more participatory) versions of the established 5-year and annual planning processes in Vietnam”.
Vietnam - Equal learning opportunities for all at Kindergartens in Thua Thien Hue Province
“As early childhood education is about laying a sound intellectual, psychological, emotional, social and physical foundation, it has an enormous potential in fostering values, attitudes and skills that support sustainable development.” (UNESCO 2008 - the contribution of early childhood education to a sustainable society. Available at: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001593/159355E.pdf)
Project VIE/033 implemented a series of activities in an effort to improve the livelihoods of some of the most vulnerable people in the project’s three target districts, i.e. women and children in resettlement areas.
Following the historic 1999 flood that killed more than 800 people and caused heavy damage to property and infrastructure, Thua Tien (TT) Hue’s provincial government issued a series of policies on land resettlement to avoid further risks caused by natural disasters. As part of that policy, more than 3,000 so-called ‘Sampan’ households, who used to live on boats, were given land by the government and a modest fund to build their new homes.
In spite of these efforts, however, many such former boat people have been struggling with issues related to land ownership, both for living and cultivation, as well as in terms of access to income-generating activities and public services, such as health care and education. Today, resettled families account for 30% of all vulnerable households in Quang Dien, Phu Vang and Phu Loc district, and those that are not already registered as a ‘poor’ or ‘near poor’ household have a high risk of falling back into poverty, especially in densely populated areas which have seen an intense degradation of resources and are increasingly prone to natural disasters.
In response, project VIE/033 inter alia supported 22 kindergartens located in poor coastal and lagoon areas, attended by 4,633 children including 1,043 from resettlement areas, with outdoor toys and class materials for improved early childhood learning. Due to budget constraints, schools had been facing difficulties in meeting national education standards, and helping to equip these schools with toys and learning materials allows for a healthy environment for comprehensive growth and development, while giving attending children from resettlement areas a level playing field as well. Further, the project also helped fund the construction of six kindergarten extensions with additional shelter, to give communities more protection and safety against typhoons and floods in those flood-prone areas.
Children enjoying lunch at a kindergarten in Quang Dien district, one of 22 kindergartens supported by VIE/033
When it was first built, Thuy Lap kindergarten could not accommodate any large number of children of kindergarten age. The school was in shortage of well-lit, ventilated and furnished classrooms, had very poor latrines and was thus unable to provide a proper learning environment. In such poor conditions, the children from the nearby resettlement areas, in particular, suffered a great deal of difficulties and did not have equal learning opportunities as compared to the children in other schools in the commune. The wretched conditions of classrooms did not only affect the quality of teaching and local children’s learning, but also proved to be unsafe during extreme weather conditions.
Children playing with new outdoor toys supported by VIE/033 at Vinh Thai kindergarten, Phu Vang district
As says Ms Hang, kindergarten vice-principal, proudly: "The new two-storey building now accommodates 100 children between the ages of two and five, providing them with equal access to improved learning conditions. They are now looked after in a state of the art setting that meets national standards and also protects them in times of adverse weather conditions".
In addition, she added that the school’s improved capacity and learning conditions have also encouraged more parents, particularly those living in surrounding resettlement areas, to send their children to the school, thus contributing to another project goal i.e. empowering mothers and allowing them to engage in income-generating activities.
So says Ms Linh, resettlement resident and mother of a five-year-old kindergartener: “I used to be very busy with raising pigs and bamboo weaving and the school was too far away, so I did not have the time to bring my children to kindergarten. Now, I can cycle there every morning and pick up my son at 4pm. And while he is busy at school playing with his friends, I can focus on my work. My son is happy at the school and we feel safer now”.
Father and son looking over the Cau Hai lagoon from a resettlement area in Phu Loc district, Thua Thien Hue Province
Vietnam – Discovering best practices in community-based ecotourismStudy Tour to Quang Nam Province
On 5 and 6 June 2017, VIE/033 organised a two-day study tour to three community-based ecotourism (CBET) models in Quang Nam province. The primary objective was to offer potential homestay service providers in the project target districts of Phu Loc, Phu Vang and Quang Dien in Thua Thien Hue province insights into how such models have been established and are managed. This tour followed-up two previous visits in 2016, one to Quang Nam province and one to Myanmar, for leaders from the government tourism and planning departments as well as private tour operators.
Within the context of the need for Thua Thien Hue people’s adaptation to climate change, and considering the presence of the Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon as a unique asset, VIE/033 considers CBET as a major potential growth industry that could diversify people’s activities and incomes, and increase their resilience.
The study tour aimed at providing households in Loc Binh, Phu An and Quang Ngan communes, selected for CBET piloting, with additional knowledge and experiences from successfully implemented CBET models in neighbouring Quang Nam, in order to improve their understanding and skills to provide professional CBET services, while also protecting and preserving the unique natural heritage of the Tam Giang-Cầu Hai Lagoon, the largest of its kind in Southeast Asia.
The study tour participants first visited Triem Tay in Dien Ban district, where six years ago hundreds of villagers were forced to abandon their homes due to serious erosion. Today, however, the area is thriving again and the sunken river bank section has been transformed into a picturesque ecotourism destination, located only a short drive or boat ride away from the famous UNESCO World Heritage town of Hoi An. The site is now protected by a 'green' dyke - a system with combined layers of concrete foundation, soil, grass and water. Visitors have the possibility to get hands-on experience in weaving, community gardening, or fishing, and can stay with local families as well.
Another Luxembourg-funded and ILO-implemented project in Dong Giang district aims at promoting more balanced growth, using tourism as a vehicle for poverty reduction in remote rural and mountainous areas. Bho Hoong and Dhroong villages officially launched their community-based tourism services in June 2013. Visitors can explore ethnic minority culture and thus help villagers have new and more stable sources of income. Bho Hoong village allowed study tour participants to try some “Co Tu” staple food, such as sticky rice served in bamboo cylinders, and enjoy a dance and gong performance in front of the central “Goul” house, while Dhroong village offered an insight into the ancient practice of weaving, for clothing as well as building.
During the wrap-up discussions, the Hue participants identified several challenges to be addressed in developing CBET in their own localities, while also highlighting the great potential of the Tam Gian-Cau Hai lagoon area. According to Ms Linh, homestay service provider in Phu An, “CBET is about exposure to traditional livelihoods, and the local households are the key subjects providing visitors with an insight into our daily life.”
The homestay providers felt inspired by the different activities at Triem Tay, Bho Hoong and Dhroong villages. Ms Ngoc, from Phu Vang district, suggested that they “could organise some unique and conventional recreational activities for visitors, such as crafting conical hats, producing rice wine, preparing typical spotted fish pancakes, or assist in the preparation of fishing nets and joining fishing activities -- while enjoying the sunrise or sunset over the lagoon.”
A number of local government representatives shared some of the lessons they had learned regarding the promotion of products and services, and management skills required in community-based ecotourism, and they assessed to what extent the mechanisms of sharing the benefits of CBET activities in the Quang Nam models between the local community, tourism enterprises, and local authority were successful.
Following this sharing and learning opportunity, the participants will now be better equipped to propose and implement tourism activities and products adapted to their respective CBET sites in the Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon. They are also expected to be more aware of the importance of ensuring good management and cooperation between homestay owners and private sector service providers, and ultimately offer an unforgettable experience to both local and international visitors.
Vietnam - Tam Giang-Cau Hai Lagoon’s Untapped Potential for Community-Based Ecotourism
With a 128 km coastline and its 22 000 ha Tam Giang-Cau Hai Lagoon, Vietnam’s central province of Thua Thien Hue (TT Hue) is frequently exposed to natural hazards and increasingly facing environmental impact and damage. At the same time, however, the unique environment of this largest lagoon system in Southeast Asia, and the scenic beauty of its surroundings, have the potential to develop a community-based ecotourism (CBET) sector and significantly contribute to strengthening people’s livelihoods, and increasing their economic resilience to climate change.
Figure 1 - View of Tam Giang Cau Hai lagoon from a fishing village in Phu Loc district, Thuan Thien Hue
Whereas national policies and strategies for tourism development are in place, and TT Hue developed a “Socio-Economic Development Plan for the Tam Giang-Cau Hai Lagoon up to 2020”, the province has faced challenges to get CBET off the ground. On the demand side, due to lack of marketing and promotion, the lagoon remains largely unknown to the many tourists that are visiting Hue City, the former imperial capital of Vietnam. On the supply side, local people are not familiar with the concept of community-based tourism, lack the necessary skills and technical support, and do not have the funding for investments in upgrading community and homestay facilities.
Figure 2 - Picture of TT Hue's lagoon on cover page of Vietnam's main English language newspaper (20/01/2017) as part of an article on tourism potential.
Recognising the uniqueness and potential of the lagoon, and with its focus on climate change adaptation and local development, project VIE/033 started working with communities, civil society, local government and the private sector to establish a number of CBET models, one in each of the three project districts. The aim of these models is to demonstrate how CBET can contribute to economic growth, while at the same time, through community mobilisation, ownership and management of natural resources, also help protect the fragile environment.
As one of the first steps, the project organised a few exposure visits. First, to a number of International Labour office (ILO) and UNESCO supported community-based models in neighbouring Quang Nam province, subsequently to Inle Lake in Myanmar, where a very similar environment attracts some 200 000 tourists a year. The latter trip was supported by LuxDev’s MYA/001 tourism project. All leaders from the government provincial and district tourism departments in TT Hue and specialists of the Department of Planning and Investment participated, along with representatives of civil society and the private sector.
Figure 3 – VIE/033 Myanmar exposure visit participants at the Ministry of Hotels and Tourism in Naypyitaw
Following these learning experiences, detailed plans for three pilot models were jointly developed, and a first two-day training on CBET provided by TT Hue’s Tourism College took place in Hue City with representatives of provincial, district and commune level as well as 27 village leaders. The training generally aimed at enhancing the awareness and knowledge of CBET destination management, and at strengthening community capacities for planning, management and tourism services in the three pilot communes of Quang Ngan, Phu An and Loc Binh. During the event, local regulations on CBET operations were jointly defined.
An interesting feature of the CBET pilots is the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) setup, with the private sector stepping in as co-facilitator and specialised partner, to support local communities in organising things on the supply side, while at the same time help promote lagoon eco-tourism and create a demand for the services and programmes on offer. A 20-year business plan, with clear agreements and responsibilities was signed between a local cooperative as the leading civil society partner and a Hue-based tour agent. The cooperation between these two partners, and implementation of their business plan, is supported by the three district Divisions of Culture, Information and Tourism, with whom LuxDev has signed Delegation Agreements, and as such are in the lead for implementation.
This close cooperation between project, local government, the private sector and cooperatives enables communities in lagoon-based villages in TT Hue to offer visitors a special and authentic cultural experience, and creates opportunities to tap into the growing domestic tourism market and since the recent opening of the ASEAN the regional tourism potential as well.
Vietnam - LuxDev project joins hands with United Nations ORANGE Campaign
From 25 November through 10 December, Human Rights Day, the 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence aim to raise public awareness and mobilizing people everywhere to bring about change.
Starting November 25, UN Women promotes the global 16-day ORANGE campaign, which aims to put this violence against women and girls in the spotlight, through many different actions and interventions by governments, civil society organisations, private businesses and individuals worldwide.
Studies and statistics demonstrate that such action is also necessary in Vietnam, where a study found out, that one in three women are beaten or sexually abused by their husbands or partners. If emotional abuse is added, the figure goes up to six out of ten. Further, a recent small-scale survey conducted in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City found that 87% of women and girls interviewed had experienced some form of sexual harassment in public places.
As a local development project in TT Hue province, VIE/033 takes a strong focus on women. Indeed, in spite of the overall achievements in socio-economic development, poverty remains a fact of life for many people and women are over-represented. Furthermore, many women who are not officially categorised as ‘poor’ or ‘near-poor’, are most vulnerable and at risk of falling into poverty quickly from the moment something goes wrong – for example as a result of a climate or weather-related event, to which the province is prone to.
The project, therefore, supports and works closely with the Women’s Union, specifically on the broad issues of Gender Equality and Women’s Economic Empowerment. As part of that support, we decided to jointly engage in the global campaign as well as "Orange Hue City".
The main event of this 16-day campaign took place on Campaign Day, in the morning of 5 December, at TT Hue’s main cultural centre, with music and dance performances, speeches by provincial leaders, the UN Women Country Representative and Lux-Development. They were joined by a campaign team of 500 enthusiasts – every single one of them dressed in the colour of the day.
Thousands of leaflets were distributed at key places around the city, and an Orange parade on bicycles rode the city’s streets, which had been decorated in the colours of the 16-day campaign and brought the Campaign Day to an impressive close.
As the UN Women’s Country Representative stated in her speech: “fear of violence leads women to withdraw from society and from jobs, and causes girls to drop out of school”. Through this Orange campaign, and the wide media coverage in newspapers and on TV, people’s awareness about the forms and level of violence against women and girls, and what action can be taken against it, has been raised. In combination with the active support of the local authorities to tackle the issues, we are hopeful that it will contribute to a safer environment for women and girls and foster their socio-economic prospects.
Vietnam - Dyke upgrade in Phu Loc District brings peace of mind to 1700 households
Bau Duoc dyke has a direct impact on the agricultural production as well as transportation efficiency and safety for nearly 2 000 people in Loc An commune. Whereas the dyke functions as a protective levee against flooding of around 250 hectares of paddy field it also serves as a key means for farmers to transport their produce during the harvest season. The dyke will also take local populations from Chau Thanh village to the centre of the commune.
Prior to the renovation, being a low-lying and vulnerable earthen embankment with small crest, the dyke would get severely damaged by floods every year. As such, it did not do much to protect people’s livelihoods, and making use of the dyke for transportation purposes would at times be cumbersome, and dangerous as well.
With financial support of the Luxembourg Development Cooperation, Bau Duoc dyke was upgraded and put into operation in May 2015. The dyke base of 921m was enlarged and reinforced, the slopes of the embankment protected with concrete slabs, the surface macadamized and three drainage culverts were added to regulate water levels. Further, an access road of 450m was built to connect the dyke with other in-field roads as well as residential areas.
“The new dyke is very effective and helpful for farmers as it now protects 250 hectares of two-crop rice fields cultivated by around 1 700 households from being inundated during the summer and early-year floods”, says Mr Hoang Thi, Vice-Director of Dai Thanh Agricultural Cooperative. “In addition, it helps local farmers save a lot of money, to the tune of 210 million Vietnam dong (over 8 000 EUR) every year, which they would otherwise have to spend on repairing the annual damage to the embankment. Farmers of the four Agricultural Cooperatives of Dai Thanh, Tien Loc, Hai Ha and Chau Thanh are currently using the dyke to visit their rice fields and transport their agricultural produce, as well as for other daily activities”. Mr Thi further stressed the important role the upgraded dyke plays for people’s safety, as “the dyke reduces the risk for 116 households in Chau Thanh village, who are no longer isolated and can be easily evacuated to a safety shelter in the commune centre during heavy floods or typhoons”.
Many of the interviewed local farmers said that the newly upgraded dyke of Bau Duoc would have a positive impact on their production. Mr Nguyen Xuan Hoa, who owns 2 500m2 of paddy field and is a member of Dai Thanh Agricultural Cooperative says: “Since the dyke was put into service nearly three months ago, and due to the time we save on going back and forth to our fields, my family and I have been able to increase the time and frequency of visiting and tending to our fields. We strongly believe this will increase our rice production”.
Mrs Nguyen Thi A’s son nearly died from drowning during last year’s floods. Herself a rice farmer, she stated “It is now very convenient and safe for us to go to the local market and for my children to go to school by themselves on the newly upgraded dyke road. It gives me more time to work on knitting fishing nets which earns us additional income for the family”. Besides safety and peace of mind for her family, she mentions a social benefit that came with the new dyke: “Previously, I was unable to attend the evening events organised in the commune centre because of the dangerous road after sunset. Things have changed now and I can safely attend community and Women’s Union meetings”.
The upgraded Bau Duoc dyke has significant direct economic and social benefits for farmers and residents alike. It not only contributes to higher yields, but also protects families and their livelihoods from the increasing frequency and severity of climate change impacts.
Construction or upgrading of dyke roads is one of many types of infrastructure interventions under project VIE/033. Six such dyke roads were built in the project’s three target districts over the last 18 months, to the benefit of more than 2 800 households (ca. 14 000 people) and for the protection of 549 hectares of agricultural land.